Norwegian party programmes - coded by topics (Manifesto_Norge)

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Emnekoding av norske partiprogram (Manifesto_Norge)

Hver setning i partiprogrammene er plassert under et predefinert emne. Denne tabellen inneholder prosentuering av disse setningene; andel i prosent hvert emne er brukt innenfor et partiprogram.

Land (COUNTRY)

Variabelen er i denne tabellen en konstant for landet Norge

Valgdato (EDATE)

Variabelen angir dag - måned - år for valget.

Parti (PARTY)

De norske partiene

Koder:

Foreign special relationships: positive (PER101)

Favourable mentions of other countries where these are either specially dependent on or are specially involved with the relevant country. For example, former colonies; in the West German case, East Germany; in the Swedish case, the rest of Scandinavia and so on; the need for co-operation with the aid to such countries; their importance to the economy and defence programmes of the relevant country.

Foreign special relationships: negative (PER102)

As for 101, but negative

Decolonisation (PER103)

Favourable mentions of decolonisation, need for relevant country to leave colonies; greater self government, and independence; need to train natives for this; need to give special aid to make up for colonial past.

Military: positive (PER104)

Need for strong military presence overseas, for rearrangement and self-defence, need to keep military treaty obligations, need to secure adequate manpower in military.

Military: negative (PER105)

As 104, but negative.

Peace (PER106)

Declaration of belief in peace and peaceful means of solving crises. Need for disarmament and negotiations with hostile countries.

Internationalism: positive (PER107)

Support for UN/League, need for international cooperation, need for aid to developing coutries, need for world planning of resources, need for international courts, support for any international aim or world state.

European Community: positive (PER108)

Favourable mentions of European Community in general, desirability of relevant country joining (or remaining a Member); desirability of expanding it and/or of increasing its competences; favourable mentions of Direct Elections; pro-European Unity in general.

Internationalism: negative (PER109)

As 107, but negative.

European Community: negative (PER110)

As 108, but negative.

Freedom and domestic human rights (PER201)

Favourable mentions of importance of personal freedom, civil rights; freedom of choice in education; freedom from bureaucratic control, freedom of speech; freedom from coercion in industrial and political sphere; individualism.

Democracy (PER202)

Favourable mention of democracy as method or goal, in national and other organisations; support for worker participation; for involvement of all citizens in decision making, as well as generalised support for symbols of democracy.

Constitutionalism: positive (PER203)

Support for specified aspects of a formal constitution, use of constitutionalism as an argument for policy as well as generalised approval for 'constitutional' way of doing things.

Constitutionalism: negtive (PER204)

As 203, but negative.

Decentralisation: positive (PER301)

Support for devolution, regional administration of politics or economy support for keeping up local and regional customs and symbols, deference to local expertise in planning etc.

Decentralisation: negative (PER302)

As 301, but negative.

Government efficiency (PER303)

Need for efficiency in government (e.g. merit system in civil service) economy in government, cutting down civil service; improving governmental procedures; generall appeal to make process og government and administration cheaper and more effective.

Government corruption (PER304)

Need to eliminate corruption in government, and associated abuse; e.g. regulation of camaign expenses; need to check pandering to selfish interests.

Government effectiveness and authority (PER305)

This includes references to government stability, especially in Italy.

Enterprise (PER401)

Favourable mention of private property rights; personal enterprise and initiative, need for the economy of unhampered individual enterprises; favourable mention of free enterprise capitalism; superiority of individual enterprise over state, and over state buying or management systems.

Incentives (PER402)

Need for financial and other incentives and for opportunities for the young etc: encouragement to small businesses and one-man shops; need for wage and tax policies designed to induce enterprise: Home Ownership.

Regulation of capitalism (PER403)

Need for regulations designed to make private enterprise work better; actions against monopolies and trusts and in defence of consumer and small businessmen; anti-profiteering.

Economic planning (PER404)

Favorable mention of central planning, of consultative or indicative nature; need for this and for government department to create national plan; need to plan imports and exports.

Corporatism (PER405)

(Applicable to the Netherlands and Canada only. But the variable is coded also for Norway).
Favourable mentions of the needs for the involvement of employers and Trades Union organisations in overall economic planning and direction through the medium of 'tri-partite' bodies such as the SER in the Netherlands.

Protection: positive (PER406)

Favourable mention of extension or maintenance of tariffs, to protects internal markets; or other domestic economic protectionism.

Protection: negative (PER407)

As 406, but negative.

Economic goals (PER408)

General statemenst of intent to persue any economic goals that are policy non-specific.

Keynsian demand management (PER409)

Adjusting government expenditure to prevailing levels of employment and inflation.

Productivity (PER410)

Need to encourage or facilitate greater production, need to take measures to aid this, appeal for greater production, and improtance of productivity to the economy; increase foreign trade; special aid to specific sectors of the economy; active manpower policy; aid to agriculture, tourism and industry.

Technology and infrastructure (PER411)

Importance of modernising industrial administration, importance of science and technological developments in industry; need for training and government sponsored research; need for overhaul of capital equipment, and methods of communications and transport (including Merchant Marine); development of Nuclear Energy.

Controlled economy (PER412)

General need for direct government control of economy; control over prices, wages, rents etc. This covers NEITHER Nationalisation nor Indicative planning.

Nationalisation (PER413)

Government ownership and control, partial or complete, including government ownership of land.

Economic orthodoxy and efficiency (PER414)

Need for traditional economic orthodoxy, e.g. balanced budgets, retrenchment in crisis, low taxation, thrift and savings; support for traditional economic institutions like the Stock Market and banking system; support for strong currency internationally.

Marxist analysis (PER415)

(new category, already used for norway)
Positive references (typically but not necessary by communist parties) to the specific use of marxist-leninist terminology and analysis of situations which are otherwise uncodeable.

Nore: This category is introduced to catch the platform content of parties in the East European countries.

Anti-Growth Economy (PER416)

(new category)
Favourable mentions of anti-growth politics and steady state economy; ecologism; "Green politics".

Note: This category is created to catch the platform content of "New Politics" parties. In some of the manifesto countries, some platforms have to be partially recoded.

Environmental Protection (PER501)

Preservation of countyside, forests, etc.; general preservation of natural resources against selfish interests; proper use of national parks; soil banks, etc; environmental improvement.

Art, sport, leisure and media (PER502)

Favourable mention of leisure activities, need to spend money on museums, art galleries etc; need to encourage worthwhile leisure activities, and to provide cultural and leisure facilities: to encourage development of the media etc.

Social justice (PER503)

Need for fair treatment of all men; for special protection for exploited; fair treatment in tax system; need for equality of opportunity; need for fair distribution of resources and removal of class barriers; end of discrimination.

Social services expansion: positive (PER504)

Favourable mention of need to maintain or expand any basic service or welfare scheme; support for free basic social services such as public health, or housing.
This excludes education.

Social services expansion: negative (PER505)

As 504, but negative.

Education pro expansion (PER506)

The need to expand and /or improve education provision at all levels.
But not technical training which is coded under 411.

Education anti expansion (PER507)

As 506, but negative.

Defence of National way of life:positive (PER601)

Favourable mentions of importance of defence against Subversion, necessary suspension of some freedoms in order to defend this; support of national ideas, traditions and institutions.

Defence of national way of life:negative (PER602)

As 601, but negative.

Traditional morality: positive (PER603)

Favourable mention of, e.g. prohibition, censorship, supression of immorality and unseemly behaviour; maintenance and stability of family.

Traditional morality: negative (PER604)

As 603, but negative.

Law and order (PER605)

Enforcement of all laws; actions against organised crime; putting down urban violence; support and resources for police; tougher attitudes in courts etc.

National effort/sosial harmony (PER606)

Appeal for national effort and solidarity; need for nation to see itself as united; appeal for public spiritedness; decrying anti social attitudes in a time of crisis, support for public interests; national interest; bipartisanship.

Communalism, pluralism, pillarization: Positive (PER607)

Preservation of autonomy o religious, ethnic, linguistic heritage within the country. Preservation and/or expansion of schools with a specific religious orientation.

Communalism, pluralism, pillarization: Negative (PER608)

As 607, but negative.

Labour groups: positive (PER701)

Favourable references to Labour, working class, unemployment, poor; support for Labour Unions, free collective bargaining, good treatment of manual and other employees.

Labour groups: negative (PER702)

As 702, but negative.

Agriculture and farmers (PER703)

Support for agriculture; farmers; any policy aimed specifially at benefitting these.

Other economic groups (PER704)

Favourable references to any Economically-defined group not covered by 701 or 703. For example, employers, self-employed, middle-class and professional groups in general.

Underpriviledged minority groups (PER705)

Favourable references to underpriviledged minorities which are defined neither in economic nor in demographic terms, e.g. the handicapped, homosexuals, etc.

Non-economic demographic groups (PER706)

Favourable mentions of, or need for, assistance to women, old people, young people: linguistic groups and national minorities; special interest groups of all kinds.

Prosent av stemmene (PERVOTE)

Variabelen viser partiets valgoppslutning i prosent

Voteest (VOTEEST)

0 tilsvarer originale tall, mens 1 betyr at stemmetallene er estimert.

Absseat (ABSSEAT)

Viser partiets totale antall seter i nasjonalforsamlingen

Totseats (TOTSEATS)

Det totale antall seter i parlamentet

Progtype (PROGTYPE)

Programtype: 1=program for ett enkelt parti...