Political Transformation in Post-Communist Europe

Research project

The Project on Political Transformation and the Electoral Process in Post-Communist Europe was part of the Economic and Social Research Council’s One Europe or Several? research programme. The project was based in the Department of Government at the University of Essex between May 1999 and May 2002. The research investigated how different aspects of the electoral system affect democratic performance and the process of political reform in post-communist Europe.


Political Transformation and the Electoral Process in Post-Communist Europe

Political Transformation in Post-Communist Europe


Political Transformation in Post-Communist Europe


Excel, SPSS, On-screen tables




12 countries

Last reviewed


Data types and sources

Election data, individual data and legislative information.

Data download

Political Transformation and the Electoral Process in Post-communist Europe


The database covers three main aspects of election data:

  1. Election results for parliamentary elections and presidential elections
  2. Candidate data
  3. Legislative data

Election results include information about the date of election, number of voters registered, votes cast and valid votes. The candidate data consist of individual data on party affiliation, sex, occupation etc., while the legislative data accounts for electoral laws in the region and changes in them over time.

Geographical coverage

The core countries covered by the database include 12 post-communist European countries. In some cases, data for other post-communist states are also provided.

Time coverage and updates

The database covers elections held in the period 1990 to 2002. The database will not be updated.


Sources are listed for all datasets and codebooks are available for the candidate data.

Access conditions and cost

Available free of charge.

Access procedures

National and constituency-level data and candidate data are given in predefined tables. Election laws can be searched by country, election year and by twelve topic areas.

Data formats

On-screen tables, Excel and SPSS.

Comparability and data quality

A major strength of this database is its comprehensive coverage of election-related data. The potential effects of changing electoral laws on election results can thus easily be studied over time. Candidate data also constitute a valuable resource in election research. Data are generally collected from election authorities or other reliable sources and are thus of high quality. The International Foundation for Electoral Systems, and the Association of Central and East European Election Officials have also contributed to the database, a further pledge to the quality of the data. In contrast to most sources of post-democratisation eastern European election data, the database does not reduce the (often) high numbers of parties into an “other parties” category and the comparative potential is as such not reduced.