Romania - Political parties

Party descriptions and CMP left-right scores
Party Type 90 92 96 00 04 08 Average
PSD+PC Social Democratic -30.2 -8.5 -6.3 -6.3 -28.8 -12.9 -15.5
PD-L Social Democratic/Liberal -15 23.7 -3.4 5 2.6
PNL Liberal 29.5 -9.1 5.5 12.9 9.7
UDMR Special Issue 7.8 9.2 -6 -6.8 -1.2 -2.6 0.1
Ethnic Ethnic-Regional
PRM Nationalist 6.6 -8.1 -13.9 5.6 -2.5
PNG-CD Christian Democrat

The table shows the periodical scores on left-right position as given in the Comparative Manifesto Project (Volkens, Andrea, et.al., 2010). The scores range from -100 (left) to +100 (right).

Type: Tentative grouping of political parties and alliances based on information provided in the Comparative Manifesto Project and from party descriptions in Europa World Yearbook, Encyclopædia Britannica and in election reports from the European Journal of Political Research and/or Electoral Studies.

PSD+PC - Social Democratic Party + Conservative Party - (Partidul Social Democrat + Partidul Conservator)

Electoral alliance between PSD and PC. PSD is a social democrat, centre-left party, which separated from the FSN in 1992 as the National Democratic Salvation Front (Frontul Democrat al Salvării Naţionale, FDSN). Changed its name to Romanian Party of Social Democracy (Partidul Democraţiei Sociale din România, PDSR) in 1993, absorbed the Romanian Social Democratic Party in 2001, at the same time changing its name to PSD. PC was formed in 1991, after the fall of Communism, under the name of the Romanian Humanist Party (Partidul Umanist Român, PUR). The party took its present name, Conservative Party, in 2005 to reflect a sharper rightist profile to its ideology. In the above table, note that the CMP scores are for the PSD only (1990-2000); 2004 scores: PSD-PUR alliance.

PD-L - Democratic Liberal Party - (Partidul Democrat-Liberal)

Founded in 1993. Formerly known as Democratic Party—National Salvation Front, then Democratic Party. Present name was adopted in 2008, following a merger with Liberal Democratic Party. The party contested legislative and presidential elections in 2004 in alliance with the NLP, as the Justice and Truth Alliance.

PNL - National Liberal Party - (Partidul Naţional Liberal)

PNL originally represented the revival of a pre-war party. It is pro-European and monarchist. Contested the 1996 election as part of the Democratic Convention of Romania. The party adheres to the doctrine of liberalism, advocating both economic and social liberalization. The party is considered centre-right and a former member of the Justice and Truth Alliance. CMP scores for 2004: PNL-PD alliance.

UDMR - Hungarian Democratic Union of Romania - (Uniunea Democrată Maghiară din România)

A Romanian political alliance, effectively (though not officially) a party, representing ethnic Hungarians in Romania. The purpose of the UDMR is allegedly to obtain territorial autonomy for Hungarians. Member of Christian Democrat International.

Ethnic - Ethnic minorities parties

The Romanian Constitution (Article 62), reserves a seat in the Chamber of Deputies for the party and cultural association of each ethnic minority in Romania (with the limitation that each national minority is to be represented by one organization only). In the 2008 election, 18 seats were granted to 18 different minority parties and associations.

PRM - Greater Romania Party - (Partidul România Mare)

Nationalist party founded in 1991. PRM pursues the recovery of territories lost during World War II. Praises the recovery of Ceausescu regime and wartime Antonescu dictatorship. The party's philosophy has often been characterized as xenophobic, anti-ethnic Hungarian, anti-Roma, homophobic, anti-Semitic, and irredentist.

PNG-CD - New Generation - Christian Democratic - (Party Partidul Noua Generaţie - Creştin Democrat)

Nationalist Christian democratic party founded in 2000. The party has been accused of having ties to neo-fascist groupings.

Sources:

Political Organizations (Romania). 2009. In Europa World online. London, Routledge. University of Bergen. Retrieved October 2009 from http://www.europaworld.com/entry/ro.dir.112

Electoral Studies (Elsevier), election reports on Romania.

European Journal of Political Research (European Consortium for Political Research), reports on Romania.

Rose, R. and Munroe, N. 2009. Parties and Elections in New European Democracies. Colchester: ECPR Press.

Budge, I.; Klingemann, H.-D.; Volkens, A.; Bara, J.; Tanenbaum, E., with Fording, R.C.; Hearl, D.J.; Kim, H.M.; McDonald, M. and Mendez, S. (2001). Mapping Policy Preferences. Estimates for Parties, Electors, and Governments 1945-1998. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Klingemann, H.D.; Volkens, A.; Bara, J.; Budge, I.; McDonald, M. (2006). Mapping Policy Preferences II. Estimates for Parties, Electors, and Governments in Eastern Europe, the European Union and the OECD, 1990-2003. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Volkens, Andrea; Lacewell, Onawa; Regel, Sven; Schultze, Henrike; Werner, Annika (2010): The Manifesto Data Collection. Manifesto Project (MRG/CMP/MARPOR), Berlin: Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung (WZB): http://manifesto-project.wzb.eu/