Netherlands - Political parties
The table shows the periodical scores on left-right position as given in the Comparative Manifesto Project (Volkens, Andrea, et.al., 2010). The scores range from -100 (left) to +100 (right).
Type: Tentative grouping of political parties and alliances based on information provided in the Comparative Manifesto Project and from party descriptions in Europa World Yearbook, Encyclopædia Britannica and in election reports from the European Journal of Political Research and/or Electoral Studies.
VVD was established in 1948 with basis in the secularized middle class. VVD represents the liberal tradition and constitutes a strong supporter of private enterprise in the Netherlands, and is often perceived a centre-right, free market or conservative liberal party. The party promotes fiscal responsibility, democracy and international cooperation, and is in general committed to the idea of the welfare state.
- Latest Parliamentary election, votes : 20.49%
- Seats in Parliament: 31
Social-democratic party established in 1946 as a merger between socialist Social Democratic Workers' Party (Sociaal Democratische Arbeiders Partij, SDAP), the minor left-liberal Free-minded Democratic League (Vrijzinnig Democratische Bond, VDB) and the social-protestants Christian-Democratic Union (Christelijk-Democratische Unie, CDU) , in an attempt to break with the tradition of pillarization. The party has four main ideals: shared responsibility, stewardship, justice, and solidarity.
- Latest Parliamentary election, votes : 19.63%
- Seats in Parliament: 30
A Dutch conservative political party which combines economic liberalism with a conservative programme towards immigration and culture. Founded in 2006 as the successor to Geert Wilders's one-man party (Groep Wilders).
- Latest Parliamentary election, votes : 15.45%
- Seats in Parliament: 24
The CDA is a Christian-democratic party established in 1980 as a result of a merger between three religious parties: the Catholic People's Party (Katholieke Volkspartij, KVP), the Christian-Historical Union (Christelijk-Historische Unie, CHU) and the Anti Revolutionary Party (Anti Revolutionaire Partij, ARP). The party represents a center position in terms of economy and defence related politics, combined with conservative leanings. The party has formed part of most ruling coalitions since the end of World War II.
- Latest Parliamentary election, votes : 13.61%
- Seats in Parliament: 21
The Socialist Party was founded in October 1971 as a Maoist party named Communist Party of the Netherlands (Marxist-Leninist). In its manifesto of principals it calls for a society where human dignity, equality and solidarity are most important. Its core issues are employment, social welfare, and investing in education, public safety and health care. The party opposes privatization of public services and is the most vocal Dutch critic of globalisation.
- Latest Parliamentary election, votes : 9.82%
- Seats in Parliament: 15
D66 was established in 1966 as a progressive-liberal and radical-democratic political party. The founders appealed to the people of the Netherlands to re-take their democratic institutions. The party renounced the 19th century political ideologies, which dominated the political system and wanted to end pillarization. There are two currents within the party: the radical democrats and the progressive liberals.
- Latest Parliamentary election, votes : 6.95%
- Seats in Parliament: 10
Founded in 1989 as a merger of the Radical Political Party, the Pacifist Socialist Party, the Communist Party of the Netherlands and the Evangelical People's Party. The core ideals of GroenLinks are democracy, respect for the environment, social justice and international solidarity. The party has its historical roots in socialism and pacifism and emphasises the conservation of nature and the environment.
- Latest Parliamentary election, votes : 6.67%
- Seats in Parliament: 10
Founded in 2000 the CU constitutes an orthodox reformed political party. It combines a conservative point of view on ethical and social issues, with more centre-left ideas on economic and environmental issues.
- Latest Parliamentary election, votes : 3.24%
- Seats in Parliament: 5
Animal rights and animal welfare party which claims not to be a single-issue party. The party gained representation in the Dutch parliament in the 2006 elections.
- Latest Parliamentary election, votes : 1.83%
- Seats in Parliament: 2
SGP is an orthodox protestant political party. Founded in 1918 it is the longest existing party in the Netherlands, and for its entire existence it has been in opposition. For its orthodox political ideals and its refusal to cooperate in any cabinet, the party is called a testimonial party.
- Latest Parliamentary election, votes : 1.74%
- Seats in Parliament: 2
Political Organizations (The Netherlands), in Europa World online. London, Routledge. University of Bergen. Retrieved 16 December 2009 from http://www.europaworld.com/entry/nl.dir.79.
Electoral Studies (Elsevier), election reports on the Netherlands.
European Journal of Political Research (European Consortium for Political Research), reports on the Netherlands.
Keman, H. 2008. The Low Countries: Confrontation and Coalition in Segmented Societies. In J.M. Colomer, ed. Comparative European Politics. New York: Routledge, pp. 208-246.
Budge, I.; Klingemann, H.-D.; Volkens, A.; Bara, J.; Tanenbaum, E., with Fording, R.C.; Hearl, D.J.; Kim, H.M.; McDonald, M. and Mendez, S. (2001). Mapping Policy Preferences. Estimates for Parties, Electors, and Governments 1945-1998. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Klingemann, H.D.; Volkens, A.; Bara, J.; Budge, I.; McDonald, M. (2006). Mapping Policy Preferences II. Estimates for Parties, Electors, and Governments in Eastern Europe, the European Union and the OECD, 1990-2003. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Volkens, Andrea; Lacewell, Onawa; Regel, Sven; Schultze, Henrike; Werner, Annika (2010): The Manifesto Data Collection. Manifesto Project (MRG/CMP/MARPOR), Berlin: Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung (WZB): http://manifesto-project.wzb.eu/