EU Related Referendums
In November 2003, the lower house (Tweede Kamer) approved a bill to hold a consultative referendum on the European Constitutional Treaty. The coalition government was divided about the bill: the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA) opposed it, the Democrats (D66) favored it and the Liberal Party (VVD) was divided but voted for the bill in the end. The upper house (Eerste Kamer) approved the bill in January 2005, and the date of the referendum was set for 1 June the same year. Much to the surprise of the political elite (which overwhelmingly favored the Treaty), the majority of the 63.3 percent of the eligible voters who went to the polls on 1 June, voted 'NO'. With 61.5 percent opposing the Treaty, the government decided not to submit the Treaty to parliament, although the government was not formally bound by the consultative referendum.
Referendum on the Ratification of the EU Constitution 2005. NUTS 2
Lucardie, P. & Voerman, G. 2006. The Netherlands. European Journal of Political Research, Vol. 45(7-8), 1201-1206.
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