Italy - Political parties

Party descriptions and CMP left-right scores
Party Type 92 94 96 01 06 Average
PdL Conservative (centre-right) 37.9 59.3 18.7 48.2 41
PD Social Democratic (centre-left) 10.7 7 16.8 -7.6 -17.7 1.9
LN Nationalist 8.6 8.6 17.5 18.7 48.2 20.3
UdC Christian Democratic 48.2 48.2
IdV Special Issue -11.3 -17.7 -14.5
PRC Communist -26.7 -24.2 -27 -32.4 -17.7 -25.6
VERDI Ecologist 9.8 -11.5 -11.5 -7.6 -17.7 -7.7
SA Communist/Ecologist
LaDestra Conservative/Nationalist
MPA Ethnic-Regional
SVP Ethnic-Regional -17.7 -17.7

The table shows the periodical scores on left-right position as given in the Comparative Manifesto Project (Volkens, Andrea, et.al., 2010). The scores range from -100 (left) to +100 (right).

Type: Tentative grouping of political parties and alliances based on information provided in the Comparative Manifesto Project and from party descriptions in Europa World Yearbook, Encyclopædia Britannica and in election reports from the European Journal of Political Research and/or Electoral Studies.

PdL - The People of Freedom - (Il Popolo Della Liberta')

The centre-right party was formally founded in 2009 by a merger of Forza Italia, Alleanza Nazionale, Nuovo Partito Socialista Italiano, Partito Repubblicano Italiano, Democrazia Cristiana per le Autonomie, Popolari Liberali, Riformatori Liberali, Azione Sociale and Partito Pensionati. The party was initially an electoral coalition, contesting in the April 2008 general election, in alliance with the Lega Nord and the Movimento per l’Autonomia. The party is fronted by Silvo Berlusconi. In the above table, note that the CMP scores fin the above table are for Forza Italia.

PD - Democratic Party - (Partito Democratico)

A centre-left party founded in 2007. Formed by a merger of Democratici di Sinistra, Democrazia è Libertà—La Margherita and other left-wing and centrist parties that had formed part of L’Unione. The first leader of the party was Walter Veltroni, who fronted the party through the 2008 parliamentary election. Current leader is Dario Franceschini. In the above table, note that the CMP scores 1992-2001 are for the Democratici di Sinistra (Democratoc Party of the Left) only. In 2006 the score is for The Union List (L'Unione).

LN - The Northern League - (Lega Nord)

Regional party founded 1991. In 1996 it declared it's full name Independent Republic of Padania (Lega Nord per l'Indipendenza della Padania). The party advocates federalism and transfer of control of resources to regional governments. Opposes immigration.

UdC - Union of the Centre - (Unione di Centro)

UdC was formed for the 2008 general election by the Union of Christian and Centre Democrats (UDC), the White Rose (RB), the Liberal Clubs, the Party of Christian Democracy (PdDC), the Christian Democratic Party (PDC) and some regional groups.

IdV - Italy of Values - (Di Pietro Italia Dei Valori)

Party founded in 1998. Considered as a populist anti-corruption party. Formed an alliance with DP in the 2008 election and won 4,4 % of the vote.

PRC - The Communist Refoundation Party - (Partito della Rifondazione Comunista)

PRC is a reformed communist party established in 1991 when the Italian Communist Party split in two and formed the Democrats of the Left and the PRC. In 1998 part of the party split off to form the Party of Italian Communists. Part of the SA-Rainbow coalition in 2008.

VERDI - The Federation of the Greens - (Federazione dei Verdi / Verdi)

Founded 1986; advocates environmentalist and anti-nuclear policies. In the 2001 Parliamentary elections it formed a group called Il Girasole (Sunflower) with the PSDI. In 2008 it was part of the SA-Rainbow coalition.

SA - The Left – The Rainbow - (La Sinistra L'Arcobaleno)

A party federation founded in 2007 comprising of Communist Refoundation Party (PRC), Party of Italian Communists (PdCI) and the Greens (Verdi). Participated in the 2008 general election, but gained only 3,1 % of the vote and failed to gain any seats in the parliament. The The party was dissolved shortly after the election.

LaDestra - The Right - Flame Tricolor - (La Destra - Fiamma Tricolore)

Far-right party formed from the former Fiamma Tricolore and AN dissidents opposed to the party's entry into PdL.

MPA - Movement for Autonomy - (Movimento Per L'Autonomia)

Regionalist party founded in 2005. In coalition with PdL in the 2008 Parliamentary election. Started out as pro-regional autonomy in the South, but in the 2009 European Parliament election it attempted to become a national party rooted in every part of the country.

SVP - South Tyrolean People's Party - (Südtiroler Volkspartei)

Regional party of the German and Ladin-speaking people in the South Tyrol region.

Sources:

Political Organizations (Italy). 2009. In Europa World online. London, Routledge. University of Bergen. Retrieved October 2009.

Italy, political parties. (2009). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved November 2009, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online.

Electoral Studies (Elsevier), election reports on Italy.

European Journal of Political Research (European Consortium for Political Research), reports on Italy.

Budge, I.; Klingemann, H.-D.; Volkens, A.; Bara, J.; Tanenbaum, E., with Fording, R.C.; Hearl, D.J.; Kim, H.M.; McDonald, M. and Mendez, S. (2001). Mapping Policy Preferences. Estimates for Parties, Electors, and Governments 1945-1998. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Klingemann, H.D.; Volkens, A.; Bara, J.; Budge, I.; McDonald, M. (2006). Mapping Policy Preferences II. Estimates for Parties, Electors, and Governments in Eastern Europe, the European Union and the OECD, 1990-2003. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Volkens, Andrea; Lacewell, Onawa; Regel, Sven; Schultze, Henrike; Werner, Annika (2010): The Manifesto Data Collection. Manifesto Project (MRG/CMP/MARPOR), Berlin: Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung (WZB): http://manifesto-project.wzb.eu/