Hungary - Political parties

Party descriptions and CMP left-right scores
Party Type 90 94 98 02 Average
FIDESZ Conservative 4.7 22.7 7.7 8.6 10.9
MSZP Social Democratic -8.4 6 5.7 -10.1 -1.7
Jobbik Nationalist 22.8 22.8
LMP Ecologist

The table shows the periodical scores on left-right position as given in the Comparative Manifesto Project (Volkens, Andrea, et.al., 2010). The scores range from -100 (left) to +100 (right).

Type: Tentative grouping of political parties and alliances based on information provided in the Comparative Manifesto Project and from party descriptions in Europa World Yearbook, Encyclopædia Britannica and in election reports from the European Journal of Political Research and/or Electoral Studies.

FIDESZ - Fidesz – Hungarian Civic Union - (Fidesz – Magyar Polgári Szövetség)

Fidesz (the Federation of Young Democrats) was founded in 1988 as an anticommunist party that promoted the development of a market economy and European integration. Initially, membership was restricted to those age 35 or younger, though this restriction was eliminated in 1993. In 1995 the party appended the name Hungarian Civic Party to its shortened form (altered to Hungarian Civic Alliance in 2003). In 1997 members of a Christian Democratic group that had dissolved joined Fidesz in the National Assembly, enabling the joint group to form the largest bloc. The following year Fidesz became the single largest party in the National Assembly.

MSZP - Hungarian Socialist Party - (Magyar Szocialista Párt)

Although the Hungarian Socialist Party (MSzP) was founded in 1989, its origins date to 1948, when the Hungarian Social Democratic Party merged into what was first called the Hungarian Workers' Party and then, following the attempted revolution against the communist government in 1956, the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party (Magyar Szocialista Munkáspárt, MSZMP) which ruled Hungary in the period 1956-1989. In 1989 the party renounced Marxism. In 2002 the MSzP and its ally, the Alliance of Free Democrats, won a narrow majority in the legislature and formed a coalition government; the coalition was reelected in 2006.

Jobbik - Movement for a Better Hungary - (Jobbik Magyarországért Mozgalom)

Founded in 2003. Extreme nationalist far-right party. Won close to 15 % of the votes in the June 2009 European Parliament elections; accused of campaigning on an anti-Jewish and anti-Roma platform. In 2007, the Jobbik established the Hungarian Guard (Magyar Garda), a black-uniformed paramilitary organization. The group was banned during 2009 by a Budapest court but was later reconstituted under a different name.

LMP - Politics Can Be Different - (Lehet Más a Politika!)

Environmentalist/ecologist party founded in 2009, emerging from a grassroot social initiativ. The party is led by a collective 13-member board. Ran a joint list with HP (Humanist Party) in the 2009 European Parliament elections, winning 2,61 % of the votes, which was less than the 5% needed to gain a seat for the 2009-2014 cycle.

Sources:

Political Organizations (Hungary). 2010. In Europa World online. London, Routledge. University of Bergen. Retrieved September 2010.

Hungary. 2010. In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved September 2010, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online.

European Journal of Political Research (European Consortium for Political Research), reports on Hungary.

Rose, R. and Munroe, N. 2009. Parties and Elections in New European Democracies. Colchester: ECPR Press.

Budge, I.; Klingemann, H.-D.; Volkens, A.; Bara, J.; Tanenbaum, E., with Fording, R.C.; Hearl, D.J.; Kim, H.M.; McDonald, M. and Mendez, S. (2001). Mapping Policy Preferences. Estimates for Parties, Electors, and Governments 1945-1998. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Klingemann, H.D.; Volkens, A.; Bara, J.; Budge, I.; McDonald, M. (2006). Mapping Policy Preferences II. Estimates for Parties, Electors, and Governments in Eastern Europe, the European Union and the OECD, 1990-2003. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Volkens, Andrea; Lacewell, Onawa; Regel, Sven; Schultze, Henrike; Werner, Annika (2010): The Manifesto Data Collection. Manifesto Project (MRG/CMP/MARPOR), Berlin: Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung (WZB): http://manifesto-project.wzb.eu/