About data


The European Election and Referendum Database is specifically intended to provide election results on a regional level for European countries. The archive cover the period from 1990 until present and publishes results from parliamentary elections, European Parliament elections, presidential elections, as well as EU-related referendums for a total of 35 European countries.

Data content

Most data sets includes data on number of persons entitled to vote (electorate), numbers of votes cast for each contesting party or candidate, number of valid votes as well as number of invalid votes.

Aggregation level

In order to promote comparability the archive publishes regional election results according to the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS), level 1 to 3. The NUTS hierarchy provides a single uniform breakdown of territorial units for the production of regional statistics for the European Union. The basic principles for NUTS can be found here. The majority of datasets in the archive is presented on NUTS levels 1-3, and on country level.

Data collection methods and data sources

Data are collected from national election authorities, national statistical agencies and other official sources. In some cases data are collected from other data archives, such as the PARTCOM project of the NSD - Norwegian Centre for Research Data or the Project on Political Transformation and the Electoral Process in Post-Communist Europe of the University of Essex. All results are sum-controlled and any discrepancies are reported in the documentation. Data are compiled at the lowest level necessary in order to publish data according to the NUTS level 1-3. Aggregation is performed by the NSD.

Data export and download

The actual data is made available in the software system Nesstar. Data files under the heading "Data for display" is in a tabular format and can only be exported to spreadsheet. Data files under the heading "Data for analytic use" is in a rectangular matrix format and can be downloaded as statistical system files for SPSS, SAS, Stata, etc.

Electoral Systems and information and classification of Political Parties

In addition to election and referendum data, the webpages of the EED provides information and descriptions of the electoral systems and the main political parties in each country. Among the main sources of this information are the Encyclopædia Britanncia, the online version of the Europa World Yearbook, and the PARLINE database on national parliaments from the Inter-Parliamentary Union. Additional print sources are also used, like Parties and Elections in new European Democracies by Richard Rose and Neil Munro, and Comparative European Politics by Josep M. Colomer (ed.)

Where scores are available, EED provides classifications of political parties according to the recognized Manifesto Project dataset. The Manifesto project focuses on quantitative content analyzes of party manifestos from 50 countries covering all free democratic elections since 1945 to measure political positions of all relevant parliamentary parties. The scores provided in the tables in the political parties section for each country, are referring to the right-left position (rile) variable in the Manifesto dataset. The right-left score is available for selected years in each country, and ranges from -100 (left) and +100 (right). The Manifesto datasets can be found in Budge, et.al. (2001) and Klingemann, et.al. (2006).

Citing Data

Users are obliged to refer to collector / distributor of the data by writing the following in forewords or footnotes in eventual publications:

"(Some of) the data applied in the analysis in this publication are based on material from the "European Election Database" . The data are collected from original sources, prepared and made available by the NSD - Norwegian Centre for Research Data (NSD). NSD are not responsible for the analyses/interpretation of the data presented here".


Budge, I., Klingemann, H.-D., Volkens, A., Bara, J., Tanenbaum, E. with Fording, R.C., Hearl, D.J., Kim, H.M., McDonald, M. and Mendez, S. 2001. Mapping Policy Preferences. Estimates for Parties, Electors, and Governments 1945-1998. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Klingemann, H.D., Volkens, A., Bara, J, Budge, I. McDonald, M. 2006. Mapping Policy Preferences II. Estimates for Parties, Electors, and Governments in Eastern Europe, the European Union and the OECD, 1990-2003. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Rose, R. and Munroe, N. 2009. Parties and Elections in New European Democracies. Colchester: ECPR Press.

Colomer, J.M., ed. 2008. Comparative European Politics. New York: Routledge.